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فهرست مقالات

کاربرد توام پلی آمین‌ها و کایتوزان بر ترکیبات زیستی فعال و قهوه‌ای شدن میوه پسته تر

نویسنده:

(18 صفحه - از 359 تا 376)

چکیده:

ﻣﯿﻮه ﭘﺴﺘﻪ ﺗﺮ ﺑﻪ واﺳﻄﻪ داﺷﺘﻦ ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﺎت ﻓﻨﻠﯽ ﺑﺎﻻ و ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺖ ﺿﺪاﮐﺴﯿﺪاﺳﯿﻮﻧﯽ ﻧﻘﺶ ﻣﻬﻤﯽ در رژﯾﻢ ﻏﺬاﯾﯽ اﯾﻔﺎ ﻣﯽﮐﻨﺪ. ﯾﮑﯽ از ﻣﺸﮑﻼت اﺻـﻠﯽ ﭘـﺴﺘﻪ ﺗـﺮ ﺗﻐﯿﯿـﺮ رﻧﮓ آن و ﻗﻬﻮه ای ﺷﺪن ﻣﯿﻮه ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. ﻟﺬا ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮر ﺣﻔﻆ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻣﯿﻮه و ﺑﺮرﺳﯽ ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮات رﻧﮓ ﻣﯿﻮه و ﻗﻬﻮهای ﺷﺪن ﻣﯿﻮه آزﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت ﻓﺎﮐﺘﻮرﯾـﻞ ﺑـﺎ ﺳـﻪ ﻓﺎﮐﺘﻮر ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﭘﺎﺷﯽ ﭘﻠﯽ آﻣﯿﻦ )ﺷﺎﻫﺪ، ﭘﻮﺗﺮﯾﺴﯿﻦ، اﺳﭙﺮﻣﯿﻦ و اﺳﭙﺮﻣﯿﺪﯾﻦ ( ﻫﺮ ﮐﺪام ﺑﻪ ﻏﻠﻈﺖ 1 ﻣﯿﻠﯽ ﻣﻮﻻر ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺑﺮداﺷﺖ، اﺳـﺘﻔﺎده از ﭘﻮﺷـﺶ ﮐـﺎﯾﺘﻮزان )ﺑـﺪون ﭘﻮﺷﺶ و 1 درﺻﺪ ﮐﺎﯾﺘﻮزان ( و زﻣﺎن اﻧﺒﺎرﻣﺎﻧﯽ )0، 20 و 40 روز( در ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﻃﺮح ﺑﻠﻮک ﻫﺎی ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﺼﺎدﻓﯽ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻪ ﺗﮑﺮار روی ﻣﯿـﻮه ﭘـﺴﺘﻪ ﺗـﺮ رﻗـﻢ اﮐﺒـﺮی اﻧﺠـﺎم ﮔﺮﻓﺖ. ﺷﺎﺧﺺﻫﺎی ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻣﯿﻮه ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻘﺪار ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﺎت ﻓﻨﻠﯽ، ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺖ ﺿﺪاﮐﺴﯿﺪاﺳﯿﻮﻧﯽ، ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺖ آﻧﺰﯾﻢ ﭘﻠﯽ ﻓﻨـﻞ اﮐـﺴ ﯿﺪاز، آﻧﺘﻮﺳـ ﯿﺎﻧﯿﻦ ﭘﻮﺳـﺖ، رﻃﻮﺑـﺖ ﭘﻮﺳﺖ، رﻧﮓ ﭘﻮﺳﺖ ﻧﺮم و ﻗﻬﻮه ای ﺷﺪن ﻃﯽ اﻧﺒﺎر ﻣﻮرد ارزﯾﺎﺑﯽ ﻗﺮار ﮔﺮﻓﺖ. ﻧﺘﺎﯾﺞ ﻧﺸﺎن داد ﮐﻪ ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﺎت ﻓﻨﻠﯽ ﭘﻮﺳﺖ و ﻣﻐﺰ، ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺖ ﺿﺪاﮐﺴﯿﺪاﺳﯿﻮﻧﯽ، ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿـﺖ آﻧﺰﯾﻢ ﭘﻠﯽ ﻓﻨﻞ اﮐﺴﯿﺪاز، آﻧﺘﻮﺳﯿﺎﻧﯿﻦ ﭘﻮﺳﺖ، رﻃﻮﺑﺖ و ﺷﺎﺧﺺﻫﺎی رﻧﮓ ﭘﻮﺳﺖ ﻧﺮم ﺑﺎ اﻓﺰاﯾﺶ زﻣﺎن اﻧﺒﺎرﻣﺎﻧﯽ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﯾﺎﻓﺖ و ﮐﺎرﺑﺮد ﭘﻠﯽآﻣﯿﻦ ﻫـﺎ ﺳـﺒﺐ ﺑﻬﺒـﻮد و ﺣﻔﻆ ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ ﻣﯿﻮه ﻃﯽ اﻧﺒﺎر ﮔﺮدﯾﺪ ﮐﻪ در اﯾﻦ ﺑﯿﻦ ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮ ﭘﻮﺗﺮﯾﺴﯿﻦ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ اﺳﭙﺮﻣﯿﻦ و اﺳﭙﺮﻣﯿﺪﯾﻦ ﺑﺮ وﯾﮋﮔﯽ ﻫﺎی اﻧﺪازهﮔﯿﺮی ﺷـﺪه ﺑﯿـﺸﺘﺮ ﺑـﻮد . ﻧﺘـﺎﯾﺞ ﻫﻤﭽﻨـﯿﻦ ﻧﺸﺎن داد ﮐﻪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﯾﮏ درﺻﺪی ﮐﺎﯾﺘﻮزان ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮاه ﭘﻠﯽ آﻣﯿﻦ ﻫﺎ ﻃﯽ اﻧﺒﺎر ﺳﺒﺐ ﺣﻔﻆ رﻃﻮﺑﺖ، ﺷﺎﺧﺺﻫـﺎی رﻧـﮓ ﭘﻮﺳـﺖ ﻧـﺮم ، ﻣﻘـﺪار آﻧﺘﻮﺳـﯿﺎﻧﯿﻦ ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﺎت ﻓﻨﻠﯽ و ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺖ ﺿﺪاﮐﺴﯿﺪاﺳﯿﻮﻧﯽ ﻃﯽ ﻣﺪت زﻣﺎن اﻧﺒﺎرﻣﺎﻧﯽ ﮔﺮدﯾﺪ. ﮐﻪ در اﯾﻦ ﺑﯿﻦ ﮐﺎرﺑﺮد ﺗﻮام ﭘﻮﺗﺮﯾﺴﯿﻦ و ﮐﺎﯾﺘﻮزان ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮﯾﻦ ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮ را ﺑـﺮ ﺣﻔـﻆ وﯾﮋﮔـﯽ ﭘﺴﺘﻪ ﺗﺮ و ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻗﻬﻮه ای ﺷﺪن ﻃﯽ اﻧﺒﺎر داﺷﺖ. ﻟﺬا ﻣﺤﻠﻮلﭘﺎﺷﯽ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺑﺮداﺷﺖ ﭘﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﺎ ﭘﻠﯽ آﻣﯿﻦ ﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ وﯾﮋه ﭘﻮﺗﺮﯾﺴﯿﻦ ﺑـﺎ ﻏﻠﻈـﺖ 1 ﻣﯿﻠـﯽ ﻣـﻮﻻر و ﭘﻮﺷـﺶ دار ﮐﺮدن ﭘﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﺎ ﮐﺎﯾﺘﻮزان ﺳﺒﺐ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﯿﺰان ﻗﻬﻮهای ﺷﺪن و ﺣﻔﻆ ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﺎت زﯾﺴﺘﯽ ﻓﻌﺎل ﻃﯽ 40 روز اﻧﺒﺎرﻣﺎﻧﯽ ﭘﺴﺘﻪ ﺗﺮ ﮔﺮدﯾﺪ.

In order to maintain the quality of pistachio fruit and evaluation of fruits color changes and browning an experiment was conducted as block completely randomizes design as factorial with three factors: perharvest polyamines forms applications: putrescine, spermidine, and spermine at 1 mM; chitosan (0 and 1%) and storage periods (0, 20 and 40 days of storage) with three replications on ‘Akbari’ cultivar. In this study fruits and hull water, hull and shell indices, pigments, hull and kernel phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidase and antioxidant activity were measured. The results showed that hull and kernel phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidase, antioxidant activity, anthocyanin, hull water, hull color indices were decreased during storage period and perharvested application of polyamines maintained these traits during storage. Among polyamines, putrescine had the highest influence on these traits compared to spermidine and spermine. The results also showed that chitosan application also maintains hull and kernel phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidase, antioxidant activity, anthocyanin, hull water, hull color indices in pistachio treated-fruits and untreated-fruits with polyamines during storage. The results also indicated that combined application of putrescine and chitosan had the greatest effect on maintaining pistachio characteristics and reducing the percentage of fruits browning during storage. Therefore, according to the results of this study, the use of putrescine with a concentration of 1 mM before harvest following chitosan coating can plays an important role in maintaining the quality of fresh pistachio fruit during storage.

کلیدواژه ها:

ترکیبات فنلی ،کلید واژگان: انبارمانی ،آنزیم پلی فنل اکسیداز ،فعالیت ضداکسیداسیونی

Storage ،Antioxidant activity ،Phenolic compounds ،Polyphenol oxidase


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